Brain and Biomarker Laboratory

The Brain and Biomarker Laboratory (BABL), under the direction of Dr. Lauren Ethridge, is a multidisciplinary, translational neuroscience laboratory focusing on applications of basic science to clinical outcomes, particularly in neurodevelopmental disorders.

The BABL group centers on the use of dense-array EEG as a translational tool for learning more about brain function in neurodevelopmental disorders. The ultimate goal of our research is to establish non-invasive biological markers for changes in brain function that not only elucidate neural and molecular pathways affected by disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and but also serve as aids for early identification, early predictors for response to individualized treatment protocols, and reliable indicators of treatment effects.

Research in the lab is highly collaborative, with a large network of investigators across the country. Current research includes:

  1. EEG as a translational, treatment sensitive, biomarker in rare genetic disorders associated with autism, including Fragile X Syndrome and Phelan-McDermid Syndrome
  2. Neural correlates of face processing in toddlers at risk for autism
  3. Characteristics of EEG activity related to variation in ASD symptoms across the full spectrum

Latest News

BABL Lab Team

Lauren Ethridge

Lauren Ethridge, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator

Nick Woodruff

Nick Woodruff, M.S.
Graduate Student

Emma Auger

Emma Auger, M.S.
Graduate Student

Jordan Norris

Jordan Norris
Graduate Student

Claire Ashton

Claire Ashton
Undergrad Student

Sara Azzun

Sara Azzun
Undergrad Student

Akansha Chandrasekar

Akansha Chandrasekar
Undergrad Student

Anusha Gopalam

Anusha Gopalam
Undergrad Student

Jasmine Heidary

Jasmine Heidary
Undergrad Student

Shreya Lingamallu

Shreya Lingamallu
Undergrad Student

Zach Little

Zach Little
Undergrad Student

Diya Mathew

Diya Mathew
Undergrad Student

Katelyn McCone

Katelyn McCone
Undergrad Student

Danna Nemri

Danna Nemri
Undergrad Student

Miranda Tortorici

Miranda Tortorici
Undergrad Student

Former BABL Lab Members

Former Graduate Students

  • Sarah McKinzie, M.S. - now teaching in the Oklahoma Public School System
  • Lindsey Tate, Ph.D. - now post-doc in Miyazaki, Japan
  • Lisa De Stefano, Ph.D. - now post-doc at Cincinatti Children's Hospital
  • Melody Reese, Ph.D. - now post-doc at Duke University

    Former Undergraduate Students and Research Assistants

  • Adam Wagner - now at OUHSC DO program
  • Eryn Jordan - now at OUHSC Master's of Occupational Therapy Program
  • Jeff Bogard - now at OUHSC MD program
  • Scarlett Pollard - now a professional research assistant at UT Dallas
  • Karlie Hamman - now at University of Kansas Medical Center
  • Kara Brown - now at University of Washington clinical psychology PhD program
  • Abbey Wegrzynski - now professional research assistant at Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
  • Joy Li - now at University of Cincinatti MD program
  • Katie Shepard - now at Texas Women's University PhD program in Occupational Therapy
  • Nathaniel Whisenant - now at Pacific University MS program in Applied Psychological Science
  • Madeline Washburn
  • Madison Salem
  • Mackenzie Mills
  • Elijah Stafford
  • Emily Allen
  • Jessica McConahey
  • Angel Scribner
  • Farris Tedder
  • Warren Chun
  • Marie Fawad
  • Caitlin Givens
  • Morgan Tran
  • Madison Weaver
  • Emily Zhou
  • Jackson Li
  • Rachel Jenks
  • Angela Xing
  • Neal Rangu
  • John Griffin
  • Will Bauer
  • Jess Johnson
  • Sameem Malajouti-Nejad
  • Krisha Patel
  • Austin Plank
  • Ciera Stafford
  • Thi Le
  • Kimberly Pham
  • Jason Webb

    BABL Collaborators


    • Dr. David Bard, Pediatrics
    • Dr. Ami Bax, Pediatrics
    • Dr. Barbara Carlson, Nursing
    • Dr. Lei Ding, Electrical and Computer Engineering
    • Dr. Andrew Fagg, Computer Science and Bioengineering
    • Dr. Bonnie McBride, Pediatrics
    • Dr. Michael Wenger, Psychology
    • Dr. Han Yuan, Biomedical Engineering

    External Collaborators

    • Dr. Jay Gibson, UT Southwestern Medical Center
    • Dr. Kim Huber, UT Southwestern Medical Center
    • Dr. Craig Powell, University of Alabama Birmingham
    • Dr. John Sweeney, University of Cincinnati
    • Dr. Craig Erickson, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital
    • Dr. Ernest Pedapati, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital
    • Dr. Khaleel Razak, UC Riverside
    • Dr. Devin Binder, uC Riverside
    • Dr. Matthew Mosconi, University of Kansas
    • Dr. Brett Clementz, University of Georgia
    • Dr. Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Rush University Medical Center
    • Dr. Carlos Portera-Cailliau, UCLA
    • Dr. Alexander Kolevzon, Mt. Sinai Medical Center
    • Dr. Jun Wang, Zhejiang Normal University, China



    Mariscal, M.G., Berry-Kravis, E., Buxbaum, J.D., Ethridge, L.E., Filip-Dhima, R., Foss-Feig, J.H., Kolevzon, A., Modi, M.E., Mosconi, M.W., Nelson, C.A., Powell, C.M. Siper, P.M., Soorya, L., Thaliath, A., Thurm, A., Zhang, B., Sahin, M. Levin, A.R. (in press). Shifted phase of EEG cross-frequency coupling in individuals with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome. Molecular Autism .

    Ethridge, L.E., Thaliath, A., Kraff, J., Nijhawan, K., Berry-Kravis, E., (2020). Development of neural response to novel sounds in fragile x syndrome: potential biomarkers. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 125 (6), 449-464.

    Reese, M., Bryant, D., Ethridge, L. (2020). Biomarkers for moral cognition: Current status and future prospects for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 113, 88-97.


    Ethridge, L.E., De Stefano, L.A., Schmitt, L.M., Woodruff, N.E., Brown, K.L., Tran, M., Wang, J., Pedapati, E., Erickson, C.A., Sweeney, J.A. (2019) Auditory EEG biomarkers in fragile x syndrome: Clinical relevance. Frontiers in Intergrative Neuroscience 13, 60.

    De Stefano, L.A., Schmitt, L.M., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Sweeney, J.A., Ethridge, L.E. (2019). Developmental effects on auditory neural oscillatory synchronization abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 13, 34.


    Hudgens-Haney, M.E., Ethridge, L.E., Knight, J.B., McDowell, J.E., Keedy, S.K., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Clementz, B.A. (2018).Psychosis subgroups differ in intrinsic neural activity but not task-specific processing. Schizophrenia Research,, 195: 222-230.

    Shou, G, Mosconi, M, Ethridge, L, Sweeney, J, Ding, L. (2018) Resting-state Gamma-band EEG Abnormalities in Autism. Accepted paper for Proceedings of 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

    Clementz, B.A., Sweeney, J.A, Hamm, J.P., Ivleva, E.I., Ethridge, L.E., Pearlson, G.D., Keshavan, M., Tamminga, C.A. (2018). Identification of distinct psychosis biotypes using brain-based biomarkers. Focus, 16(2), 225-236. * this is a reprint of the 2016 article by the same name in a continuing medical education journal for Influential Publications in Psychiatry.

    Sahin, M., Jones, S.R., Sweeney, J.A., Berry-Kravis, E., Connors, B.W., Ewen, J.B., Hartman, A.L., Levin, A.R., Potter, W.Z., Mamounas, L.A. on behalf of the Biomarker Workshop Faculty (in press). Discovering translational biomarkers in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery.


    Wang, J., Ethridge, L.E., Mosconi, M.W., White, S.P., Binder, D.K., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C. A., Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2017). A resting EEG study of neocortical hyperexcitability and altered functional connectivity in Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9:11.

    Hudgens-Haney, M.E., Ethridge, L.E., Knight, J.B., McDowell, J.E., Keedy, S.K., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Clementz, B.A. (2017). Intrinsic neural activity differences among psychotic illnesses. Psychophysiology,54(8), 1223�1238.

    Shou, G., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J., Ethridge, L.E., Sweeney, J.A., Ding, L. (2017). Electrophysiological signatures of atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in autism. Journal of Neural Engineering, 14(4):046010.

    Ethridge, L.E., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C., Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2017). Neural synchronization deficits linked to cortical hyper-excitability and auditory sensitivity in Fragile X Syndrome. Molecular Autism, 8:22.


    Ethridge, L.E., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J. Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2016). Reduced habituation of auditory evoked potentials indicate cortical hyperexcitability in Fragile X Syndrome. Translational Psychiatry, 6: e787.

    Clementz, B.A., Sweeney, J.A, Hamm, J.P., Ivleva, E.I., Ethridge, L.E., Pearlson, G.D., Keshavan, M., Tamminga, C.A. (2016). Identification of distinct psychosis biotypes using brain-based biomarkers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(4): 373-384.


    Ethridge, L.E. Soilleux, M., Nakonezny, P.A., Reilly, J.L., Hill, S.K., Keefe, R.S.E., Gershon, E.S., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A. (2015). Behavioral response inhibition in psychotic disorders: Diagnostic specificity, familiality, and relation to generalized cognitive deficit. Schizophrenia Research, 159(2-3): 491-498.

    Ethridge, L.E., Hamm, J.P., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Clementz, B.A. (2015). Event-related potential and time-frequency endophenotypes for schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 77(2): 127-136.

    Narayanan, B., Ethridge, L.E., O�Neil, K., Dunn, S., Mathew, I., Tandon, N., Calhoun, V.D., Ruano, G., Kocherla, M., Windemuth, A., Clementz, B.A., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Pearlson, G.D. Genetic sources of subcomponents of event-related potential in the dimension of psychosis analyzed from the BSNIP study. American Journal of Psychiatry, epub ahead of print DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101411.


    Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Boutros, N.N., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Clementz, B.A. (2014) Diagnostic Specificity and Familiality of Early versus Late Evoked Potentials to Auditory Paired-Stimuli across the Schizophrenia-Bipolar Psychosis Spectrum. Psychophysiology, 51(4): 348-357.

    Ethridge, L.E., Malone, S.M., Iacono, W.G., Clementz, B.A. (2013) Genetic influences on composite neural activations supporting visual target identification. Biological Psychology, 92(2):329-341.

    Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Shapiro, J.R., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Thaker, G., Clementz, B.A. (2013) Family history of psychosis moderates auditory neural abnormalities in non-psychotic bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders,15: 774-786.

    Wang, J., Barstein, J., Ethridge, L.E., Mosconi, M., Takarae, Y., Sweeney, J.A. (2013) Resting state EEG abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1):24. *(�Highly accessed� designation awarded through BioMed Central)

    Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Shapiro, J.R., Stevens, M.C., Boutros, N.N., Summerfelt, A.T., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Thaker, G., Clementz, B.A. (2012) Spatio-temporal and frequency domain analysis of auditory paired stimuli processing in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Psychophysiology,49(4):522-530.

    Ethridge, L.E., Hamm, J.P., Shapiro, J.R., Thaker, G., Summerfelt, A.T., Keedy, S.K., Stevens, M.C., Pearlson, G., Boutros, N.N., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Clementz, B.A. (2012). Neural activations during auditory oddball processing discriminating schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry,72(9):766-774.

    Ethridge, L.E., Moratti, S., Gao, Y., Keil, A., Clementz, B.A. (2011). Sustained versus transient brain responses in schizophrenia: The role of intrinsic neural activity. Schizophrenia Research, 133:106-111.

    Knight, J.B., Ethridge, L.E., Marsh, R.L., Clementz, B.A. (2010). Neural correlates of attentional and mnemonic processing in event-based prospective memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Feb.9; 4:5. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.005.2010

    Hamm, J.P., Dyckman,.K.A., Ethridge., L.E., McDowell., J.E., Clementz, B.A. (2010). Preparatory activations across a distributed cortical network determine production of express saccades in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(21): 7350-7.

    Ethridge, L.E., Brahmbhatt, S., Gao, Y., McDowell, J.E., Clementz, B.A. (2009). Consider the context: blocked versus interleaved presentation of antisaccade trials. Psychophysiology, 46(5): 1100-7.