Each synovial joint has a point in its range of motion where:
  1. its surfaces are maximally congruent

  2. its capsule and ligaments are maximally elongated and taut.

  3. its surfaces are maximally compressed

Points in the range of motion that are not close-packed positions are "loose-packed positions."


Hertling, D., & Kessler, R.M. (1996). Management of common musculoskeletal disorders: Physical therapy principles and methods (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 27-28.

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