Secondary (accessory) muscles of respiration

Anterior view
(Kapandji, 1974, p.149, Fig. 30)

Posterior view
(Kapandji, 1974, p.149, Fig. 29)

Secondary muscles of inspiration

sternocleidomastoideus (1)
scalenes (3)
pectoralis major (4)
pectoralis minor (5)
serratus anterior
serratus posterior superior (11)
upper iliocostalis (12)

Secondary muscles of expiration

external oblique (8)
internal oblique (9)
rectus abdominus (7)
lower iliocostalis (13)
lower longissimus (14)
serratus posterior inferior (15)

Source of figures: Kapandji, I.A. (1974). Functional components of the vertebral column. In I.A. Kapandji, The physiology of the joints: Vol. 3. The trunk and the vertebral column. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Last updated 11-3-00 Dave Thompson PT
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